This is henderson- hasselbachs equation it's flawed tho.
I think the proper equation is pH=-log[H+]
or -log (base of ur conjunctive acid)+ (-log (base of ur conjunctive base))= pH levels. the number of zeros that come infront of ur actual number is simply the number of sig figs u have.
An arrhenius acid + an arrhenius base = water + salt
Arrhenius acid as defined by Svante Arhenius in 1884
-an arhenius acid is a substance that dissociates to produce H+ ions
IE: HCl--> H+ + CL- this is hydrochloric acid
Acetic acid = CH3COOH(aq)
[/hr] H+(aq) + CH3COO(aq)-
Arrhenius base = is a substance that dissociates to producuce OH- ions
covalent compounds with an -OH group( called alchohols) do not dissociate to OH- ions.
The oxygen is covalently bonded to something; it can not be pulled off easily. CH3OH is methanol
Arrhenius acid + arrhenius bas → water + salt
HNO3(aq) + LiOH(aq) → HOH + LiNO3
Net Ionic Equation:
H+(aq) plus OH-(aq) → H2O(L)
Bronsted- Lowry acid definition-
a substance that acts as a proton (H+) donor.
*anything with a (-) charge or a lone pair of electrons **could** be a B-L acid (some with greater ease than others)
Bronsted- Lowry base definition- a substance that acts as a proton (H+) acceptor
*anything with a (-) charge or a lone pair of electrons could be a B-L base
OH- acts as a B-L base because it can bind with H+ to make water
CO3 -2 acts as a B-L base cuz it can bind with 2H+ to make it a neutral compound
NH3 acts as a B-L base cuz it has a lone pair of electrons which can form a bond with H+
a B-L acid always needs another chemical to be a B-L base
this is and acid- base reaction
acid-base reaction= H+ transfer
In many *(but not alll)* situations WATER!!! acts as the acid or base
HCl IN water
HCl (aq) + H2O(l) --> H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
H3O+ is hydronium it is equivalent to H+
H3O+ is heavy water cuz it is ozonated!!
NH3(aq) + H2O (L) --> NH4(aq) + OH-(aq)
***Hydroxide can be produced even though the base didn't contain that ion***
-log[H+] = pH
its a simple logarithm. DONT USE IF CONFUSED send me a msg i'll help u out
Remember its high school equations I am only 17
If you closely at the reactants in these examples:
HCl(aq) + H2O (l) --> H30+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) --> NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)
you may ask yourself "How do you know which reactant is the acid and which is the base?"
1. The acid must have an H to donate
2. The base must be able to accept an H
3. If both are amphiprotic* then the stronger acid gets to be the acid
* an adjective describing a chemical that can act as an acid or a base
HCl + H2O --> H3O++ Cl-
HCl has an H so it could act as an acid... It can't be a base(neutral and not nitrogen-based) must act as an acid. HAHA funny that it's hydrochloric acid.
H2O can be both (its amphiprotic) but because the HCl can only be an acid the water must act as a base.
NH3+ H2O --> NH4+ + OH-
NH3 has an "H" so it could act as an acid... It could act as a base as well!
H2O is a stronger acid (?!?!) than NH3, so it forces its H+ onto the NH3.